Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the Brucella genus. It occurs worldwide, but is most common in the Mediterranean region, India, the Middle East, Central Asia and Latin America.
Brucellosis affects several animals, including cows, sheep, goats, deer, pigs and dogs. Six Gram-negative bacteria of the Brucella genus are responsible for the infection: B. melitensis, B. aboutus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, B. neotomae. The first four species are able to infect also humans.
The disease is a major public health concern due to potential human infection, and causes serious economic damage, especially in agro-pastoral areas due to livestock infection.