Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the Campylobacter genus. Described in the 1950s as a rare bacteraemia in immunocompromised individuals, campylobacteriosis was first identified as a cause of diarrhoeal diseases in 1972. Most infections (about 90%) are caused by species C. jejuni and C. coli, while those caused by species C. lari, C. fetus and C. upsaliensis are less frequent.
Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal bacterial diseases worldwide and, in some European countries, its incidence rate is currently higher than that of nontyphoidal salmonelloses. The incidence of this disease, which has actually increased over the last 10 years, is a public health problem with considerable social and economic impact.