Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by a virus of the Nairovirus genus that is usually transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. The disease was first described in 1944 among farmers and soldiers in Crimea. In 1969, it was recognized that the virus was the same as that identified in a child in Congo in 1956: hence the name Crimean-Congo fever.
In humans, the disease is severe and has a high case fatality rate, but low incidence. In animals, however, it may be more common.