Dementia is a condition affecting between 1% and 5% of adults over 65 years old, and its prevalence doubles with every four-year increment in age, reaching about 30% by 80 years of age. Dementia is actually a general term used to describe several chronic and progressive conditions affecting brain functions and leading to cognitive decline. These are usually classified into two categories: “primary dementia”, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, and “secondary dementia” (i.e. occurring as a result of other conditions), such as HIV-associated dementia.
The most common identified types of dementia include:
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Parkinson’s disease dementia
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
- Vascular dementia
- Dementia with Lewy bodies
- Frontotemporal dementia
- Progressive supranuclear palsy.