Il portale dell'epidemiologia per la sanità pubblica

a cura del Centro nazionale per la prevenzione delle malattie e la promozione della salute dell'Istituto superiore di sanità

Sorveglianza ostetrica (Itoss)

Letteratura di riferimento

14 giugno 2018 - In questa sezione del sito sono riportati i principali documenti (articoli scientifici, rapporti nazionali e internazionali, linee guida, ecc) che forniscono una base di riferimento scientifica per chi desidera approfondire i temi affrontati dalla sorveglianza ostetrica.


Per facilitare la ricerca da parte degli operatori i documenti sono divisi per tipologia di sorveglianza e progetto di ricerca e ordinati cronologicamente.


Mortalità materna

  1. Donati S, Maraschini A, Lega I, D'Aloja P, Buoncristiano M, Manno V; Regional Maternal Mortality Working Group. Maternal mortality in Italy: results and perspectives of record-linkage analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2018 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13415
  2. Lauria L, Lega I, Maraschini A, D'Aloja P, Ferraro C, Donati S: Methodological flaws in web surveys: Commentary to "Abuse and disrespect in childbirth assistance in Italy: A community based survey". Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;226:73
  3. Cook JL, Majd M, Blake Jet al.: Measuring Maternal Mortality and Morbidity in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017;39(11):1028-37
  4. Nair M, Nelson-Piercy C, Knight M: Indirect maternal deaths: UK and global perspectives. Obstet Med 2017;10(1):10-5
  5. Van den Akker T, Bloemenkamp KWM, van Roosmalen J, et al on behalf of the Netherlands Audit Committee Maternal Mortality and Morbidity and the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths: Classification of maternal deaths: where does the chain of events start? The Lancet 2017;390(10098):922-3
  6. Van den Akker T, Nair M, Goedhart M, et al on behalf of the Netherlands Audit Committee Maternal Mortality Morbidity the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths: Maternal mortality: direct or indirect has become irrelevant. The Lancet Glob Health 2017;5(12):e1181-e1182
  7. Alkema L, Chou D, Hogan D,et al : Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group The Lancet 2016;387(10017):462–74
  8. Knight M, Nair M, Tuffnell D, et al. (Eds.) on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care - Surveillance of maternal deaths in the UK 2012-14 and lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009-14. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford 2016 (pdf 6,9 Mb)
  9. Agrawal P: Maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States of America. Bull World Health Organ 2015;93(3):135
  10. Cantwell R, Clutton-Brock T, Cooper G,et al : Saving mothers’ lives. Reviewing maternal death to make motherhood safer-2006-2008.Bjog 2011;118 Suppl 1:1-203.
  11. Shakespeare J, Knight M: Maternal health in pregnancy: messages from the 2014 UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Death. Br J Gen Pract 2015;65(638):444-5
  12. United Nations Secretary-General: The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016–2030). New York: Every Woman Every Child 2015 (pdf 9,9 Mb)
  13. Euro-Peristat: The European Perinatal Health Report 2010. Health and care of pregnant women and babies in 2010 2013
  14. Donati S, Senatore S, Ronconi A, Regional maternal mortality working group: Maternal mortality in Italy: a record-linkage study. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:872-9
  15. Pattinson R, Say L, Souza JP, et al on behalf of the WHO Working Group on Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Classifications: WHO maternal death and near-miss classifications. Bull World Health Organ 2009;87:734
  16. Deneux-Tharaux C, Berg C, Bouvier-Colle MH et al.: Underreporting of pregnancy-related mortality in the United States and Europe. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:684-92
  17. Lewis G: Beyond the numbers: reviewing maternal deaths and complications to make pregnancy safer. Br Med Bul 2003;67:27-37.


Mortalità perinatale

  1. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Jassir FB, et al.: National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000: a systematic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 2016;4(2):e98-e108
  2. Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Middleton P, et al.: Stillbirths: recall to action in high-income countries. The Lancet 2016;387(10019):691-702
  3. Lawn JE, Blencowe H, Waiswa P, et al.: Stillbirths: rates, risk factors, and acceleration towards 2030. The Lancet 2016;387(10018):587-603
  4. World Health Organization: The WHO application of ICD-10 to deaths during the perinatal period: ICD-PM. 2016 (pdf 847 kb)
  5. Manktelow BM, Smith LK, Evans TA, et al. on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK collaboration: Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report. UK Perinatal Death for Births from January to December 2013. Leicester: The Infant Mortality and Morbidity Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester 2015 (pdf 22 Mb)
  6. Mohangoo AD, Blondel B, Gissler M, et al., Euro-Peristat Scientific Committee: International comparisons of fetal and neonatal mortality rates in high-income countries: should exclusion thresholds be based on birth weight or gestational age?. PLos One 2013;8(5):e64869
  7. World Health Organization website: Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: Stillbirths.


Morbosità materna grave

  1. Green L, Knight M, Seeney FM,et al.: The epidemiology and outcomes of women with postpartum haemorrhage requiring massive transfusion with eight or more units of red cells: a national cross-sectional study. Bjog 2016;123(13):2164-70
  2. Knight M: Severe maternal morbidity-actions are more important than definitions. Bjog 2016;123(6):954
  3. Acosta CD, Kurinczuk JJ, Lucas DN, Tuffnell DJ, Sellers S, Knight M on behalf of the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System: Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011-2012: a national case-control study. PLos Med 2014;11(7):e1001672
  4. Knight M, Lewis G, Acosta CD, Kurinczuk JJ: Maternal near-miss case reviews: the UK approach. Bjog 2014;121;4:112-6
  5. Euro-Peristat Project with SCPE and Eurocat: Peristat Monitoring and Evaluating Perinatal Health in Europe. 2013 (pdf 8,5 Mb)
  6. Donati S, Senatore S, Ronconi A, and the regional maternal mortality-working group: Obstetric near-miss cases among women admitted to intensive care units in Italy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012;91(4):452-7
  7. Lewis G: Saving Mothers' Lives: The Continuing Benefits for Maternal Health From the United Kingdom (UK) Confidential Enquires Into Maternal Deaths. Semin Perinatol 2012;36:19-26
  8. Tunçalp O, Hindin MJ, Souza JP, Chou D, Say L: The prevalence of maternal nearmiss: a systematic review. Bjog 2012;119(6):653-61
  9. World Health Organization: Evaluating the quality of care for severe pregnancy complications. The WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. 2011 (pdf 751 kb)
  10. Kramer HM, Schutte JM, Zwart JJ,et al : Maternal mortality and severe morbidity from sepsis in the Netherlands. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009;88(6):647-53
  11. Say L, Souza JP, Pattinson RC: WHO working group on Maternal Mortality and Morbidity classifications. Maternal near miss – towards a standard tool for monitoring quality of maternal health care. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2009;23:287-96


Sepsi materna e perinatale

  1. D’Aloja P, Lega I, Maraschini A,et al.: [WHO GLOSS: a global study to promote the reduction of preventable maternal and neonatal deaths related to sepsis]. Recenti Prog Med 2017;108(9):363-5
  2. Reinhart K, Daniels R, Kissoon N, et al.: Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority - A WHO Resolution. N Engl J Med 2017;6:28
  3. Reinhart K, Daniels R, Kissoon N, et al.: Recognizing sepsis as a global health Priority - A WHO Resolution. N Engl J Med 2017;377(5):414-7
  4. The Global Maternal and Neonatal Sepsis Initiative Working Group: The Global Maternal and Neonatal Sepsis Initiative: a call for collaboration and action by 2030. The Lancet Glob Health 2017;5:e390-1
  5. Fleischmann C, Scherag A, Adhikari NKJ, et al.: Assessment of global incidence and mortality of hospital-treated sepsis: current estimates and limitations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016;193:259-72
  6. Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML et al. with Sepsis Definitions Task Force: Developing a New Definition and Assessing New Clinical Criteria for Septic Shock: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). Jama 2016;315:775-87
  7. Oud L: Pregnancy-associated severe sepsis: contemporary state and future challenges. Infect Dis Ther 2014;3:175-89
  8. Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A et al.: Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. The Lancet Glob Health 2014;2:e323-33
  9. World Health Organization: Drug resistance: Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014. 2014
  10. Chan GJ, Lee AC, Baqui AH, et al.: Risk of early-onset neonatal infection with maternal infection or colonization: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. PLos Med 2013;10: e1001502
  11. Lagu T, Rothberg MB, Shieh MS, et al.: What is the best method for estimating the burden of severe sepsis in the United States?. J Crit Care 2012;27:414
  12. Wilhelms SB, Huss FR, Grant G, Sjoberg F: Assessment of incidence of severe sepsis in Sweden using different ways of abstracting International Classification of Diseases codes: difficulties with methods and interpretation of results. Crit Care Med 2010;38:1442-9
  13. Flaatten H: Epidemiology of sepsis in Norway in 1999. Crit Care 2004;8:180-4
  14. World sepsis website.


Disagio psichico perinatale

  1. Littlewood E, Ali S, Ansell P, et al. with BaBY PaNDA study team: Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study. Bmj Open 2016;6(6):e011223
  2. O'Connor E, Rossom RC, Henninger M, et al: Primary Care Screening for and Treatment of Depression in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Jama 2016;315(4):388-406
  3. Cantwell R, Knight M, Oates M, et al., on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK mental health chapter writing group. Lessons on maternal mental health. In: Knight M, Tuff Nell D, Kenyon S, et al.: Saving lives, improving mother’s care - surveillance of maternal death in the UK 2011–13 and lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009–13. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford 2015;p22-41 (pdf 4,3 Mb)
  4. Howard LM, Piot P, Stein A: No health without perinatal mental health. The Lancet 2014;384(9956):1723-4
  5. Jones I, Chandra PS, Dazzan P, et al.: Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period. The Lancet 2014;384(9956):1789-99
  6. National Institute for Care Excellence: Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance. 2014
  7. Stein A, Pearson RM, Goodman SH, et al.: Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet 2014;384(9956):1800-19
  8. Palladino CL, Singh V, Campbell J, Flynn H, Gold KJ.: Homicide and suicide during the perinatal period: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118(5):1056-63
  9. Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, et al.: A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:1012-24
  10. Vesga-López O, Blanco C, Keyes K, et al.: Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:805-15
  11. Gavin NI, Gaynes BN, Lohr KN, et al.: Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:1071-83
  12. Oates M: Suicide: the leading cause of maternal death. Br J Psychiatry 2003;183:279-81
  13. Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, et al.: Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12(7):439-45.