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L'epidemiologia per la sanità pubblica
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Epidemiologia per la sanità pubblica - ISS

Letteratura di riferimento

6 dicembre 2018 - In questa sezione del sito sono riportati i principali documenti (articoli scientifici, rapporti nazionali e internazionali, linee guida, ecc) che forniscono una base di riferimento scientifica per chi desidera approfondire i temi affrontati dalla sorveglianza ostetrica.


Per facilitare la ricerca da parte degli operatori i documenti sono divisi per tipologia di sorveglianza e progetto di ricerca e ordinati cronologicamente.


Mortalità materna

  1. Euro-peristat: “European perinatal health report. Core indicators of the health and care of pregnant women and babies in Europe in 2015" (pdf 7,5 Mb), novembre 2018. Leggi l’approfondimento.

  2. Donati S, Maraschini A, Lega I, D'Aloja P, Buoncristiano M, Manno V; Regional Maternal Mortality Working Group. Maternal mortality in Italy: results and perspectives of record-linkage analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2018 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13415
  3. Lauria L, Lega I, Maraschini A, D'Aloja P, Ferraro C, Donati S: Methodological flaws in web surveys: Commentary to "Abuse and disrespect in childbirth assistance in Italy: A community based survey". Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;226:73
  4. Cook JL, Majd M, Blake Jet al.: Measuring Maternal Mortality and Morbidity in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017;39(11):1028-37
  5. Nair M, Nelson-Piercy C, Knight M: Indirect maternal deaths: UK and global perspectives. Obstet Med 2017;10(1):10-5
  6. Van den Akker T, Bloemenkamp KWM, van Roosmalen J, et al on behalf of the Netherlands Audit Committee Maternal Mortality and Morbidity and the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths: Classification of maternal deaths: where does the chain of events start? The Lancet 2017;390(10098):922-3
  7. Van den Akker T, Nair M, Goedhart M, et al on behalf of the Netherlands Audit Committee Maternal Mortality Morbidity the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths: Maternal mortality: direct or indirect has become irrelevant. The Lancet Glob Health 2017;5(12):e1181-e1182
  8. Alkema L, Chou D, Hogan D,et al : Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group The Lancet 2016;387(10017):462–74
  9. Knight M, Nair M, Tuffnell D, et al. (Eds.) on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care - Surveillance of maternal deaths in the UK 2012-14 and lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009-14. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford 2016 (pdf 6,9 Mb)
  10. Agrawal P: Maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States of America. Bull World Health Organ 2015;93(3):135
  11. Cantwell R, Clutton-Brock T, Cooper G,et al : Saving mothers’ lives. Reviewing maternal death to make motherhood safer-2006-2008.Bjog 2011;118 Suppl 1:1-203.
  12. Shakespeare J, Knight M: Maternal health in pregnancy: messages from the 2014 UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Death. Br J Gen Pract 2015;65(638):444-5
  13. United Nations Secretary-General: The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016–2030). New York: Every Woman Every Child 2015 (pdf 9,9 Mb)
  14. Euro-Peristat: The European Perinatal Health Report 2010. Health and care of pregnant women and babies in 2010 2013
  15. Donati S, Senatore S, Ronconi A, Regional maternal mortality working group: Maternal mortality in Italy: a record-linkage study. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:872-9
  16. Pattinson R, Say L, Souza JP, et al on behalf of the WHO Working Group on Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Classifications: WHO maternal death and near-miss classifications. Bull World Health Organ 2009;87:734
  17. Deneux-Tharaux C, Berg C, Bouvier-Colle MH et al.: Underreporting of pregnancy-related mortality in the United States and Europe. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:684-92
  18. Lewis G: Beyond the numbers: reviewing maternal deaths and complications to make pregnancy safer. Br Med Bul 2003;67:27-37.


Mortalità perinatale

  1. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Jassir FB, et al.: National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000: a systematic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 2016;4(2):e98-e108
  2. Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Middleton P, et al.: Stillbirths: recall to action in high-income countries. The Lancet 2016;387(10019):691-702
  3. Lawn JE, Blencowe H, Waiswa P, et al.: Stillbirths: rates, risk factors, and acceleration towards 2030. The Lancet 2016;387(10018):587-603
  4. World Health Organization: The WHO application of ICD-10 to deaths during the perinatal period: ICD-PM. 2016 (pdf 847 kb)
  5. Manktelow BM, Smith LK, Evans TA, et al. on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK collaboration: Perinatal Mortality Surveillance Report. UK Perinatal Death for Births from January to December 2013. Leicester: The Infant Mortality and Morbidity Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester 2015 (pdf 22 Mb)
  6. Mohangoo AD, Blondel B, Gissler M, et al., Euro-Peristat Scientific Committee: International comparisons of fetal and neonatal mortality rates in high-income countries: should exclusion thresholds be based on birth weight or gestational age?. PLos One 2013;8(5):e64869
  7. World Health Organization website: Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: Stillbirths.


Morbosità materna grave

  1. Green L, Knight M, Seeney FM,et al.: The epidemiology and outcomes of women with postpartum haemorrhage requiring massive transfusion with eight or more units of red cells: a national cross-sectional study. Bjog 2016;123(13):2164-70
  2. Knight M: Severe maternal morbidity-actions are more important than definitions. Bjog 2016;123(6):954
  3. Acosta CD, Kurinczuk JJ, Lucas DN, Tuffnell DJ, Sellers S, Knight M on behalf of the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System: Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011-2012: a national case-control study. PLos Med 2014;11(7):e1001672
  4. Knight M, Lewis G, Acosta CD, Kurinczuk JJ: Maternal near-miss case reviews: the UK approach. Bjog 2014;121;4:112-6
  5. Euro-Peristat Project with SCPE and Eurocat: Peristat Monitoring and Evaluating Perinatal Health in Europe. 2013 (pdf 8,5 Mb)
  6. Donati S, Senatore S, Ronconi A, and the regional maternal mortality-working group: Obstetric near-miss cases among women admitted to intensive care units in Italy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012;91(4):452-7
  7. Lewis G: Saving Mothers' Lives: The Continuing Benefits for Maternal Health From the United Kingdom (UK) Confidential Enquires Into Maternal Deaths. Semin Perinatol 2012;36:19-26
  8. Tunçalp O, Hindin MJ, Souza JP, Chou D, Say L: The prevalence of maternal nearmiss: a systematic review. Bjog 2012;119(6):653-61
  9. World Health Organization: Evaluating the quality of care for severe pregnancy complications. The WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. 2011 (pdf 751 kb)
  10. Kramer HM, Schutte JM, Zwart JJ,et al : Maternal mortality and severe morbidity from sepsis in the Netherlands. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009;88(6):647-53
  11. Say L, Souza JP, Pattinson RC: WHO working group on Maternal Mortality and Morbidity classifications. Maternal near miss – towards a standard tool for monitoring quality of maternal health care. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2009;23:287-96


Sepsi materna e perinatale

  1. D’Aloja P, Lega I, Maraschini A,et al.: [WHO GLOSS: a global study to promote the reduction of preventable maternal and neonatal deaths related to sepsis]. Recenti Prog Med 2017;108(9):363-5
  2. Reinhart K, Daniels R, Kissoon N, et al.: Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority - A WHO Resolution. N Engl J Med 2017;6:28
  3. Reinhart K, Daniels R, Kissoon N, et al.: Recognizing sepsis as a global health Priority - A WHO Resolution. N Engl J Med 2017;377(5):414-7
  4. The Global Maternal and Neonatal Sepsis Initiative Working Group: The Global Maternal and Neonatal Sepsis Initiative: a call for collaboration and action by 2030. The Lancet Glob Health 2017;5:e390-1
  5. Fleischmann C, Scherag A, Adhikari NKJ, et al.: Assessment of global incidence and mortality of hospital-treated sepsis: current estimates and limitations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016;193:259-72
  6. Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML et al. with Sepsis Definitions Task Force: Developing a New Definition and Assessing New Clinical Criteria for Septic Shock: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). Jama 2016;315:775-87
  7. Oud L: Pregnancy-associated severe sepsis: contemporary state and future challenges. Infect Dis Ther 2014;3:175-89
  8. Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A et al.: Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. The Lancet Glob Health 2014;2:e323-33
  9. World Health Organization: Drug resistance: Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014. 2014
  10. Chan GJ, Lee AC, Baqui AH, et al.: Risk of early-onset neonatal infection with maternal infection or colonization: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. PLos Med 2013;10: e1001502
  11. Lagu T, Rothberg MB, Shieh MS, et al.: What is the best method for estimating the burden of severe sepsis in the United States?. J Crit Care 2012;27:414
  12. Wilhelms SB, Huss FR, Grant G, Sjoberg F: Assessment of incidence of severe sepsis in Sweden using different ways of abstracting International Classification of Diseases codes: difficulties with methods and interpretation of results. Crit Care Med 2010;38:1442-9
  13. Flaatten H: Epidemiology of sepsis in Norway in 1999. Crit Care 2004;8:180-4
  14. World sepsis day.org website.


Disagio psichico perinatale

  1. Littlewood E, Ali S, Ansell P, et al. with BaBY PaNDA study team: Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study. Bmj Open 2016;6(6):e011223
  2. O'Connor E, Rossom RC, Henninger M, et al: Primary Care Screening for and Treatment of Depression in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Jama 2016;315(4):388-406
  3. Cantwell R, Knight M, Oates M, et al., on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK mental health chapter writing group. Lessons on maternal mental health. In: Knight M, Tuff Nell D, Kenyon S, et al.: Saving lives, improving mother’s care - surveillance of maternal death in the UK 2011–13 and lessons learned to inform maternity care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009–13. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford 2015;p22-41 (pdf 4,3 Mb)
  4. Howard LM, Piot P, Stein A: No health without perinatal mental health. The Lancet 2014;384(9956):1723-4
  5. Jones I, Chandra PS, Dazzan P, et al.: Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period. The Lancet 2014;384(9956):1789-99
  6. National Institute for Care Excellence: Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance. 2014
  7. Stein A, Pearson RM, Goodman SH, et al.: Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet 2014;384(9956):1800-19
  8. Palladino CL, Singh V, Campbell J, Flynn H, Gold KJ.: Homicide and suicide during the perinatal period: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118(5):1056-63
  9. Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, et al.: A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:1012-24
  10. Vesga-López O, Blanco C, Keyes K, et al.: Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65:805-15
  11. Gavin NI, Gaynes BN, Lohr KN, et al.: Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:1071-83
  12. Oates M: Suicide: the leading cause of maternal death. Br J Psychiatry 2003;183:279-81
  13. Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, et al.: Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12(7):439-45.